The traditional methods of producing electricity is largely based on fossil fuels, these fuels burn large amounts of CO2 released into the atmosphere, which increases the greenhouse effect and global warming of the atmosphere. If you can, choose a provider that will ensure that the energy it uses is from renewable sources. If you decide to buy a plant to produce clean energy, there are ecoincentivi state, thanks to which you can save on the purchase and installation.
Renewable energy sources consist mainly of:
- solar energy (obtainable with photovoltaic solar panels)
- wind energy (which uses the energy of the wind with special blades)
- geothermal energy (the one that comes from the heat of the earth)
- the biomass (the energy is from the decomposition of organic material)
(Note: the use of biomass does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, since the amount of carbon dioxide released during the decomposition is equivalent to that absorbed during the growth of the biomass itself. It is however a source of clean and renewable energy, and is therefore an alternative stand).
Hydropower deserves a separate discussion: it is true that the source (the movement of water due to gravity) is renewable, but to be produced hydropower requires the construction of dams and plants, which may have an impact high hydrological ecosystem and local wildlife.
The plants for renewable energy are therefore gaining ever larger slices of the public, both among individuals who decide to dotarne their private homes and among companies, who think so in a concrete way to innovate the way they deal with the activity production.
The photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly into electricity.
These panels utilize the photo electric effect and have a conversion efficiency of up to 32.5% in cells lab. In practice, once obtained the cell modules and panels from the modules, and once mounted in place, the average efficiency is about 15%.
These panels with no moving parts require very little maintenance. Essentially should be cleaned periodically. The estimated life of the photovoltaic panels is about 30 years.
The main shortcomings of these systems are the cost of the panels.
The second problem of this kind of plant is that the energy is produced instantaneously and cannot be stored in a simple way. Initiatives, have been undertaken by several European states, including the latest in chronological order is Italy, through the Inter-Ministerial Decree 28/07/2005.
Photovoltaic systems are generally divided into two major groups: stand-alone systems, and grid-connected. The 90% of production uses as raw material the crystalline silicon.
At the industry level, the current shortage of silicon, initially neglected, is now causing many problems.
This situation has also prompted the various companies operating in the production of Photovoltaic cells to move towards the production of thinner cells and more efficient.